By Barbara Demick and John M. Glionna
North Korea's new leader faces a steep political learning curve: His doting father, Kim Jong Il, is now officially gone, memorialized Wednesday in a state funeral that saw hundreds of thousands of mourners flailing at themselves in sadness along the snowy streets of Pyongyang.
A quiet presence who presided over the solemn procession, the youthful Kim Jong Un, boyish looking in his close-cropped haircut and chubby cheeks, must now set upon the task of leading an impoverished and vilified regime that in recent years has failed to adequately feed its own people.
The 27-year-old, Swiss-educated successor has the mature guidance of two players from his father's old inner circle: his uncle Jang Song Taek and Kim Kyong Hui, Jang's wife and the late dictator's younger sister.
Yet experts predict that many perhaps-competing interests will be whispering into the ear of the young leader in the coming months as world leaders ponder whether he will follow in the footsteps of his father's take-no-prisoners diplomacy or set his own course.
For days, the såtate-controlled media has bestowed one new title on the young Kim after another, including the "great successor," "supreme leader" and "sagacious leader." The coming months will tell if those words hold water, North Korea watchers say.
Many expect the younger Kim to maintain the old military-first policy, finding his way into the hearts and minds of military leaders old enough to be his grandfather. That means giving priority to their funding needs and playing out old agendas of nuclear arms building and off-the-leash attacks against South Korea.
"After the funeral, the first thing Kim Jong Un has to do is shore up his power with the military with a title that will legitimately give him power," said Moon Hong Sik, a research fellow at the Institute for National Security Strategy in Seoul.
South Korean residents alive during World War II and the 1950s Korean conflict worry that Kim's youth and lack of experience might bring warfare back to the Korean peninsula.
"Looking at his youthful face, I feel a chilling fear: Will I be facing the third war in my life?" wrote one blogger.
But some scholars expect the North under Kim to step back from its aggressive policy toward the South.
"I would expect the North is going to continue its smile offensive and good behavior at least until April 15, 2012 (the 100th birthday of Kim Il Sung, Kim's late grandfather and the founder of North Korea) and possibly beyond then," Ralph A. Cossa, president of the Pacific Forum, a Honolulu-based nonprofit research institute, wrote in a recent essay.
Other experts agreed. "North Korea's internal resources have dried up. To solve the biggest problem, which is the economic issue, they will have to reach out to the nearby countries," said Koh Yu Hwan, a North Korean studies professor at Dongguk University in Seoul.
"They are unlikely to carry out military provocation," added Koh, who said he expected North Korea to return to the six-party talks aimed at convincing the regime to drop its nuclear weapons program.
Others, including some of the 20,000 defectors who have fled their homeland for South Korea, hope that Kim helps foster an economic recovery that will mean less deprivation and hunger for the nation's 24 million residents.
"Right now the food shortage is severe, and in order to reduce the civilian discontent he will have to focus on bettering the economy," said Moon.
In China, Pyongyang's longtime ally, even a commentator on the official CCTV television broadcast referred to North Koreans' desire for a change of course.
"I hope the new leader will lead the country to a new era with better living conditions," said Su Xiaohui, research fellow at the Chinese Institute of International Studies.
Many people want Kim to become North Korea's Deng Xiaoping and open up the economy. "It would be so great if he would open North Korea's borders and develop its economy like China," said Pak Chun Ok, 61, a Chinese citizen of Korean ethnic roots.
Out of curiosity, Pak had stopped by the North Korean Embassy in Beijing on Wednesday. She said she was mourning Kim Jong Il but doubted that many others felt genuine grief.
Although her father was North Korea and her father a loyal member of the Communist Party, she had long lost faith in the unbending ideology that had hobbled the North Korean economy.
"When I was a kid, North Korea was richer than China. Many intellectuals, professors left China for North Korea," recalled Pak. "After China's reform and opening, it switched."
In recent years, the North Koreans she met were starving women who would sometimes come to her home begging for food and shelter for themselves and their children.
Zhang Lianghui, a professor at the Central Party School in Beijing, predicted people will be disappointed by the younger Kim.
"People are assuming because he is young and studied in Switzerland he will focus on reform and the economy, but I think his background is less important than the position he occupies now," he said.
Zhang believes Kim will continue the "military-first" policy of his father, unwilling in a tenuous political position to challenge the powerful military whose support he needs to rule.
While it remains unclear how much Kim Jong Il was beloved by his citizens, the regime's state-run media on Wednesday whipped up a frenzy of propaganda for the late "Dear Leader."
"Even the snow has come to say goodbye to the general," North Korean television announcers reported on a snowy day in Pyongyang.
Another added: "It is the last stage of your life, but not of your ideology."
Now it will be up to the son to guide the nation. And if she's asking, Pak has some no-nonsense advice for the Kim clan's third-generation leader.
"Kim Jong Un has to go among the people and see how they are really living," she said. "It is not right for the (North Korean) leaders to have all the food while the common people are starving."
This article was published at NationofChange at: http://www.nationofchange.org/kim-jong-un-face-stiff-challenges-north-korea-s-new-leader-1325178231. All rights are reserved.