Combating censorship: Pressley’s bill targets discriminatory book bans as civil rights violations

In a bold move against escalating book bans, Rep. Ayanna Pressley introduces a legislative response to safeguard diversity and freedom in literature.


In recent times, the United States has witnessed a significant rise in the banning of books, primarily those exploring themes of Black history and LGBTQ+ representation. This escalating trend has sparked a response from Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-Massachusetts), who introduced the Books Save Lives Act. This proposed legislation aims to redefine many of these bans as violations of federal civil rights laws, marking a critical juncture in the ongoing battle for intellectual freedom and diversity in American literature.

The wave of book bans sweeping across the nation is not a random occurrence but rather a coordinated effort, with conservative groups and lawmakers at its forefront. These bans, often justified under the guise of “parental rights,” have targeted a specific range of literature, raising concerns about censorship and discrimination in educational and public spaces.

The Books Save Lives Act, introduced by Pressley, takes a stand against the disproportionate exclusion of literature in libraries receiving federal funding. The Act proposes that such exclusions, particularly those that affect content related to certain populations, be considered violations of existing federal civil rights laws, including the Civil Rights Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. This groundbreaking move seeks to legally challenge the censorship trends seen in public libraries and schools.

In addition to addressing book bans, the Act mandates the inclusion of diverse collections in public and school libraries and requires the presence of qualified librarians in primary and secondary school libraries. This aspect of the bill reflects a broader commitment to ensuring that a variety of voices and stories are accessible to all readers, fostering an environment of inclusivity and understanding.

The phenomenon of book banning is not new, but its recent acceleration is alarming. During the 2022-2023 school year, PEN America recorded a staggering 3,362 instances of book bans across the United States. These bans predominantly targeted books with LGBTQ characters or themes and books discussing race or featuring characters of color. This trend signifies a concerning shift towards a more narrow, exclusionary approach to literature in public spaces.

The American Library Association has echoed these concerns, noting a 20% increase in book ban challenges in the first eight months of 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. Such statistics underscore the urgency of the situation, highlighting the need for legislative action like the Books Save Lives Act.

The bill has garnered support from 28 co-sponsors in the House, including prominent progressive lawmakers such as Representatives Jamaal Bowman (D-New York), Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-New York), and Ilhan Omar (D-Minnesota). This backing signifies a growing recognition of the issue’s importance among lawmakers. Additionally, the Act has received endorsements from influential education advocacy groups like We Need Diverse Books, PFLAG National, Florida Freedom to Read Project, and Color Of Change.

Statements from these organizations emphasize the critical need for the legislation, citing the adverse effects of book banning on vulnerable communities, particularly BIPOC and LGBTQIA+ youth. Caroline Richmond, Executive Director of We Need Diverse Books, stressed the importance of reflective literature in supporting the mental well-being of these children, many of whom are at a higher risk of self-harm and suicide.

The consequences of book bans extend beyond the immediate unavailability of certain titles. For many in affected communities, particularly among marginalized groups, these bans represent a denial of their stories and experiences. This exclusion can have profound psychological impacts, fostering feelings of isolation and invisibility.

Authors and educators have voiced their concerns, with some teachers leaving states where book bans are prevalent. The chilling effect on educational institutions is palpable, with educators feeling pressured to avoid certain topics and authors disillusioned by the removal of their works from libraries. The message sent by these bans is clear: certain narratives are not deemed worthy of exploration or discussion.

The political underpinnings of the book banning movement are rooted in a broader agenda of conservative groups. These groups have leveraged the concept of “parental rights” to advance discriminatory practices against LGBTQ+ individuals and people of color. This strategy has led to a wave of bans specifically targeting books that address issues of race, sexuality, and identity.

Katherine Oakley, senior director for legal policy at the Human Rights Campaign, sheds light on the motivations behind these bans. She points out the clear intentions of those advocating for censorship: a refusal to acknowledge or discuss the existence of LGBTQ+ individuals and issues of race, deeming such topics inappropriate or even obscene.

The Books Save Lives Act could set a legal precedent by equating certain book bans with civil rights violations. This reclassification would not only challenge existing censorship practices but also potentially redefine the landscape of intellectual freedom in the United States.

The social implications of this move are significant. By legally contesting these bans, the Act could pave the way for more inclusive and diverse literary offerings in public and educational spaces. This shift is crucial in fostering a society where multiple narratives and perspectives are acknowledged and respected.

The Books Save Lives Act is part of a growing legislative response to the issue of book bans. Earlier efforts, such as the Right to Read Act introduced by Rep. Raúl Grijalva (D-Ariz.) and Sen. Jack Reed (D-R.I.), and the Fight Book Ban Act introduced by a coalition of Democrats, including Rep. Maxwell Frost (D-Fla.), have also sought to counteract censorship in schools and libraries. While these bills share common goals with Pressley’s Act, each offers unique approaches to addressing the issue, collectively underscoring the urgency of the matter.

These legislative efforts represent a concerted push against the tide of censorship, each contributing in its way to the broader fight for literary freedom and the right to read.

The impact of book bans is perhaps most poignantly expressed through the personal stories of those affected. Authors like Maia Kobabe, whose graphic novel “Gender Queer: A Memoir” has been a frequent target of bans, emphasize the importance of seeing one’s experiences reflected in literature. Kobabe’s account of finding solace and understanding in the library highlights the profound influence that inclusive literature can have on individuals, especially during formative years.

Educators and students also share their experiences, recounting the ways in which these bans have limited their access to diverse viewpoints and stifled intellectual growth. These narratives serve as powerful testaments to the detrimental effects of censorship and the vital role that literature plays in shaping our understanding of ourselves and the world around us.

The Books Save Lives Act emerges as a pivotal legislative effort in the ongoing struggle against book censorship. By framing discriminatory book bans as civil rights violations, the Act seeks to protect the diversity and richness of literature in American libraries. As this legislative battle unfolds, the importance of safeguarding intellectual freedom and ensuring the representation of all voices in literature remains clear.

Rep. Ayanna Pressley, in advocating for the Act, encapsulates the essence of this struggle, asserting, “The fight for books is a fight for intellectual freedom; a fight for education; a fight for democracy; a fight for justice.”


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Alexandra Jacobo is a dedicated progressive writer, activist, and mother with a deep-rooted passion for social justice and political engagement. Her journey into political activism began in 2011 at Zuccotti Park, where she supported the Occupy movement by distributing blankets to occupiers, marking the start of her earnest commitment to progressive causes. Driven by a desire to educate and inspire, Alexandra focuses her writing on a range of progressive issues, aiming to foster positive change both domestically and internationally. Her work is characterized by a strong commitment to community empowerment and a belief in the power of informed public action. As a mother, Alexandra brings a unique and personal perspective to her activism, understanding the importance of shaping a better world for future generations. Her writing not only highlights the challenges we face but also champions the potential for collective action to create a more equitable and sustainable world.