Crossing the threshold: The world’s first 12-Month period above 1.5°C

"Rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are the only way to stop global temperatures increasing."


The European Union’s climate change monitoring service has recently reported a significant and troubling milestone: the world has just experienced its warmest January on record. This event marks the first 12-month period during which global temperatures have averaged more than 1.5°C above pre-industrial times, a threshold scientists and policymakers have long sought to avoid.

2023 was declared the planet’s hottest year on record, with data tracing back to 1850. The combination of human-induced climate change and the natural weather phenomenon known as El Niño, which warms the surface waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean, has driven temperatures to unprecedented highs. “It is a significant milestone to see the global mean temperature for a 12-month period exceed 1.5°C above pre-industrial temperatures for the first time,” remarked Matt Patterson, an atmospheric physicist at the University of Oxford.

Record-breaking temperatures

January’s temperature surge has surpassed previous records, with the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) noting it as the warmest January since their records began in 1950. This surpasses the previous record set in January 2020. The trend of record-breaking warmth is not limited to January alone; every month since June 2023 has set new records compared to corresponding months in previous years.

The implications of these records are profound, given the benchmarks established by the 2015 Paris Agreement. Nations around the globe committed to keeping global warming well below 2°C, aiming for a 1.5°C limit to prevent the most catastrophic consequences of climate change. The recent 12-month period exceeding the 1.5°C mark raises concerns about meeting these international goals.

The Paris Agreement and the 1.5°C goal

The 1.5°C target is more than a number; it represents a crucial line in the sand in the global effort to mitigate the impacts of climate change. While the recent data might suggest a grim outlook, experts clarify that this does not signify a definitive breach of the Paris Agreement targets, which consider long-term temperature averages over decades.

Despite this, the urgency to act remains paramount. Samantha Burgess, C3S deputy director, emphasized, “Rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are the only way to stop global temperatures increasing.” The scientific consensus points to an immediate need for drastic cuts in CO2 emissions to minimize further overshooting of the 1.5°C target.

The role of El Niño

El Niño’s influence on global temperature spikes is well-documented, with the phenomenon contributing significantly to the heat records of the past year. As El Niño begins to wane, there is speculation about a potential shift to its cooler counterpart, La Niña, which could influence global climate patterns in the coming months. However, despite this transition, January saw the highest global sea surface temperatures for the month on record, indicating that the effects of El Niño continue to linger.

Global impacts

The repercussions of these rising temperatures are felt worldwide, with varying impacts across different regions. In South America, countries like Argentina and Chile have faced blistering temperatures and devastating wildfires, highlighting the immediate human and ecological toll of the climate crisis. The global sea ice extent and concentration have also fluctuated, with Arctic sea ice nearing average extents for January but Antarctic sea ice reaching significantly low levels.

The response from the global community has been one of alarm and a renewed call to action. “We are heading towards a catastrophe if we don’t fundamentally change the way we produce and consume energy within a few years,” stated Denmark’s Global Climate Policy Minister Dan Jorgensen. The consensus is clear: without significant policy shifts and a move towards sustainable energy sources, the goals of the Paris Agreement may slip further out of reach.

Predictions for future temperatures remain uncertain, with U.S. scientists suggesting a one-in-three chance that 2024 could be even warmer than the last year. This possibility underscores the critical need for continued monitoring and proactive climate policies to address the ongoing crisis.

As Samantha Burgess states, “2024 starts with another record-breaking month – not only is it the warmest January on record, but we have also just experienced a 12-month period of more than 1.5°C above the pre-industrial reference period. Rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are the only way to stop global temperatures increasing.”


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