2023 Lancet Report on health and climate change: a critical call for comprehensive global action

In-depth analysis of the escalating health crisis due to climate change and the imperative for systemic global climate action.



The 2023 Lancet Countdown report, a pivotal document crafted by 114 scientists from 52 institutions worldwide, presents an urgent and comprehensive analysis of the escalating health crises due to climate change. This eighth iteration of the report underscores the critical need for global action, highlighting the urgent issues facing humanity due to the changing climate. With global temperatures reaching 1.14°C above pre-industrial levels, the report emphasizes that immediate and sustained action is vital to mitigate these impacts​​​​.

The current state of the global climate crisis

The report situates the current climate crisis within a historical and contemporary context, outlining the severity of recent climatic changes. The past eight years have been the warmest on record, and 2023 marked a significant peak in global temperatures, the highest in over 100,000 years. These soaring temperatures have led to extreme weather events across all continents, profoundly impacting human health and safety. From intense heatwaves to devastating floods and droughts, these events are clear indicators of a deeply changing climate system​​.

Vulnerability and impact on human health

The Lancet report delves into the human toll of these rising temperatures, especially on vulnerable populations. In 2023, adults over 65 and infants experienced twice as many heatwave days compared to the late 20th century. This increased exposure has led to an alarming 85% surge in heat-related deaths among older individuals compared to the 1990-2000 period, far exceeding expectations based on temperature changes alone​​.

Broader health implications of climate change

The report also explores the wider health implications of climate change. The increasing frequency and severity of droughts, for instance, have major consequences for food production, water security, and sanitation. This exacerbates food insecurity, with a significant rise in the number of people at risk of malnutrition and its irreversible health effects. Additionally, the changing climate is creating environments conducive to the spread of infectious diseases like dengue, malaria, vibriosis, and West Nile virus, posing new health challenges worldwide​​.

Economic and social costs of climate inaction

The economic and social costs of climate change are staggering and multifaceted. The report highlights the substantial income losses caused by heat exposure, which disproportionately affect low and medium Human Development Index (HDI) countries. This exacerbates global economic disparities and poses significant challenges for vulnerable populations, making adaptation and mitigation efforts more difficult. The social costs also extend to the loss of livelihoods, displacement, and long-term impacts on mental health, further compounding the challenges faced by affected communities​​.

Global response: a path of insufficient action

Despite the scientific community’s clear warnings, the global response to climate change has been grossly inadequate. The report points out the continuous rise in CO2 emissions, with a record level reached in 2022. The strategies of major oil and gas companies are alarmingly misaligned with the goals of the Paris Agreement, setting the world on a trajectory towards almost 3°C of heating by the end of the century. This lack of adequate response highlights the urgent need for a strategic shift towards renewable energy and away from fossil fuel dependency​​.

Transformative potential of renewable energy transition

The report identifies the transition to renewable energy as a critical pathway for achieving transformative health benefits. With a large portion of the global population lacking access to reliable electricity and dependent on biomass fuels, the shift to renewable sources can significantly reduce health burdens associated with air pollution. The transition to renewable energy not only alleviates these health risks but also presents opportunities for economic development, job creation, and the advancement of global health equity​​.

The crucial role of health professionals and policymakers

Health professionals and policymakers are identified as key players in driving this transition. The report emphasizes the importance of integrating health considerations into climate policies and actions. It calls for a focus on primary prevention, rapid mitigation efforts across all sectors, and health-centered adaptation strategies. Ensuring that human health and survival are central considerations in climate change responses is vital for realizing the potential health benefits of climate action​​.

Addressing inequities in climate impact

The report sheds light on the disproportionate impact of climate change on minoritized and vulnerable populations. These populations, often contributing the least to climate change, are facing the most severe health impacts. This disparity is a direct result of structural injustices and power imbalances at both global and local levels. Addressing these injustices is crucial for an equitable and effective response to the climate crisis​​.

A comprehensive call to action

The Lancet report represents a comprehensive call to action for the global community. It underscores the necessity of systemic changes to avert the worst impacts of climate change. These changes include accelerating the phase-out of fossil fuels, investing in renewable energy, and implementing robust health-centered adaptation strategies. Such actions are crucial for protecting global health and ensuring a sustainable and equitable future for all​​​​.

The urgency of climate change action

The urgency for climate change action has never been greater. The report warns that the current pace and scale of mitigation efforts are woefully inadequate to safeguard people’s health and safety. Projections of a 2°C hotter world reveal a dangerous future, with every health hazard tracked by the report expected to increase. Inaction now could lead to catastrophic outcomes for future generations, making immediate and decisive climate action imperative​​.

Climate change and global health equity

The Lancet report also highlights the issue of global health equity in the context of climate change. It points out that people living in poorer countries, often least responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, are bearing the brunt of the health impacts. This highlights the need for equitable climate action that ensures all countries, especially those most vulnerable, have the resources and support to adapt to the effects of climate change and transition to sustainable practices​​.


The 2023 Lancet Countdown report serves as a critical reminder of the urgent need to address the climate crisis. Its comprehensive findings highlight the profound and escalating impacts of climate change on global health, underscoring the necessity of immediate and sustained action. As the world faces a rapidly closing window of opportunity to secure a livable and sustainable future, this report calls on international organizations, governments, corporations, and individuals to place human health and survival at the forefront of their climate change strategies and actions. The report’s message is clear: decisive climate action is imperative, and the time to act is now.


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