"Protecting Pain-Capable Unborn Children from Late-Term Abortions Act" would leave state bans that are more restrictive in place, but outlaw state bans that allowed abortions after 15 weeks.
"No archaic law should dictate our reproductive freedom," said one rights advocate.
The bill "bars abortion from implantation with narrow exceptions to save the pregnant person's life or in cases of rape or incest so long as the victim reports the crime."
"I can't believe in a matter of months we've gone from losing the constitutional right to abortion to debating whether doctors can provide lifesaving care to patients."
After an "enormous victory" in Kansas, some progressives argue that ballot measures "are the next frontier" for protecting access to reproductive healthcare.
"We must codify the right to abortion in Congress," said Rep. Pramila Jayapal. "Pregnant people deserve to make their own healthcare decisions."
The president's order excludes certain actions that progressives have demanded, such as authorizing the use of federal lands to set up abortion clinics in Republican-led states.