Global military spending hits record $2.4 trillion amidst rising conflicts

As conflicts in Ukraine and Gaza intensify, world powers led by the US ramp up military expenditures, sparking debate over global security priorities and economic consequences.


The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) released a report on Monday indicating that global military spending surged to a record $2.4 trillion in 2023, marking the ninth consecutive year of increases. This rise comes as the international community grapples with Russia’s ongoing assault on Ukraine and escalating military actions in Gaza, contributing significantly to what SIPRI describes as war-related expenditures reaching an all-time high.

According to SIPRI, last year witnessed a 6.8% increase in global military expenditure, the largest annual growth since 2009. The rise was noted across every geographical region analyzed by the institute, from Europe, where nations have responded to perceived threats from Russia, to Oceania and the Middle East, where geopolitical tensions continue to simmer.

The United States remains the largest military spender by a substantial margin, allocating $916 billion to its military budget in 2023, a 2.3% increase from the previous year. This figure accounts for 37% of total global military spending. China followed as the second-largest spender, investing an estimated $296 billion into its military forces, roughly three times less than the U.S. but still marking significant regional influence. Other major contributors included Russia, India, and Saudi Arabia, which together with the U.S. and China, made up 61% of global military outlays.

The intensification of military conflicts has directly influenced these spending increases. The Russian military operations in Ukraine and Israeli military actions in Gaza have not only led to human and political crises but have also driven significant increases in military budgets. NATO’s spending, for instance, reflected this trend, with member countries pouring approximately $1.3 trillion into military expenditures in 2023, of which the U.S. contributed 68%.

This substantial military spending has sparked a debate within the U.S. regarding the allocation of national resources. Public Citizen, a watchdog group, criticized the enormous military budget, highlighting the disconnect between military spending and the needs of Americans struggling with basic necessities like healthcare and food security. The group’s outcry reflects a broader domestic concern that while military budgets grow, less than half of the U.S. federal discretionary budget is left for healthcare, housing, nutrition assistance, and education.

Nan Tian, a senior researcher with SIPRI’s Military Expenditure and Arms Production Program, noted, “The unprecedented rise in military spending is a direct response to the global deterioration in peace and security.” However, he warned that prioritizing military strength could risk further escalating tensions in an already volatile geopolitical landscape.

In the Middle East, military spending jumped by 9% last year—the highest annual growth rate in the past decade. Israel, heavily reliant on U.S. weapons imports, increased its military spending by 24% from 2022, driven largely by its extensive military operations in Gaza. This regional spending surge is reflective of the shifting security dynamics, with SIPRI researcher Diego Lopes da Silva noting the rapid changes—from diplomatic thawing to outright conflict—that influence military expenditure.

With nations increasingly investing in arms over diplomacy, the potential for an “action-reaction spiral” in military buildups becomes a palpable risk. Moreover, the economic impact of such spending is profound, potentially diverting funds from critical areas such as health and environmental sustainability during a time when global cooperation is urgently needed to address widespread challenges.

The report suggests a sustained trend of rising defense budgets across various regions, which poses significant questions about the future balance between military expenditure and public welfare needs.

Reflecting on these developments, Nan Tian, a senior researcher at SIPRI, stated, “The unprecedented rise in military spending is a direct response to the global deterioration in peace and security.”


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Alexis Sterling is a seasoned War and Human Rights Reporter with a passion for reporting the truth in some of the world's most tumultuous regions. With a background in journalism and a keen interest in international affairs, Alexis's reporting is grounded in a commitment to human rights and a deep understanding of the complexities of global conflicts. Her work seeks to give voice to the voiceless and bring to light the human stories behind the headlines. Alexis is dedicated to responsible and engaged journalism, constantly striving to inform and educate the public on critical issues of war and human rights across the globe.